Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is designed for collaboration from conception of a project. The uniting of owner, architect, and contractor on a level playing field can be mutually conducive toward quality delivery. This triad branches out even further when subcontractors and consultants are brought into the equation. The fundamentals of this process delivery method are intended to ensure maximum efficiency and successful project delivery from all parties involved.
IPD differs from the Traditional Project Delivery (TPD) method, also known as the design-bid-build method. Under TPD an owner develops contract documents with an architect consisting of a set of blueprints and detailed specifications. Based on these, bids are then solicited from contractors and contract is then awarded to the lowest responsive and responsible bidder.
IPD is distinguished from TPD in that it has as its foundation the benefits accruing to whole of project, rather than those of the individual stakeholders, as its result. Whole Building Design Guide (WBDG)/ A Program of the National Institute of Building Sciences defines IPD as: “an approach to the design and construction process that is based on shared risk and reward, and open exchange of information that is intended to optimize project results.”
The IPD method is intended to unify the Project Delivery Team at the beginning of the project with the shared goal of project success. The principle of IPD can be applied to a project in two ways: 1). IPD as a Philosophy and, 2). IPD as a Delivery Method.
IPD as a Philosophy occurs when integrated practices or philosophies are applied to more traditional project delivery methods, including TPD. The degree of collaboration may vary with IPD as Philosophy, but most or all elements are not contractually binding.
IPD as a Delivery Method occurs when an Owner signs a multi-party contract with key members of the Project Delivery Team that incentivizes collaboration, team risk-sharing, and other IPD principles and practices.
Integrated Project Delivery is distinctly at odds with Traditional Project Delivery. TDP incentivizes profit-taking by individual contractors selected under competitive circumstances as the framework for contractor selection. IPD does not. Proceeding under TPD, by definition, situates owner, architect, and contractor in various, ofttimes antagonistic relationships with one another. Conversely IPD at it’s core defines that all three stakeholders (owner, architect, and contractor) are working – either philosophically or contractually – towards the same common goal.