Tag Archives: architectural theory

Floating Architecture

AntiRoom II, a Floating Pavilion in Malta

From New York to Shanghai, coastal cities around the world are at risk from rising sea levels and unpredictable storm surges. But rather than simply building higher seawalls to hold back floodwaters, many builders and urban planners are turning to floating and amphibious architecture — and finding ways to adapt buildings to this new reality. Some new buildings, including a number of homes in Amsterdam, are designed to float permanently on shorelines and waterways. Others feature special foundations that let them rest on solid ground or float on water when necessary. Projects range from simple retrofits for individual homes in flood zones to the construction of entire floating neighborhoods — and possibly even floating cities. Continue reading

Buildings that Move

Kinetic brise soleil at the Milwaukee Art MuseumKinetic architecture is a concept through which buildings are designed to allow parts of the structure to move, without reducing overall structural integrity. A building’s capability for motion can be used just to enhance its aesthetic qualities, respond to environmental conditions, and/or perform functions that would be impossible for a static structure. The possibilities for practical implementations of kinetic architecture increased sharply in the late 20th century due to advances in mechanics, electronics, and robotics. Continue reading

The Sea Ranch Style

The Architecture of Sea RanchConceived at a time when nature and utopian ideals were becoming increasingly prevalent in American culture and modern architecture, the Northern California community of Sea Ranch was developed in the early 1960s by architect and planner Al Boeke. Boeke envisioned a community that would preserve the area’s natural, rugged beauty and coastline, and would be based on ecological principles with minimal impact on the native environment. Continue reading

Architectural Modernism

Rejecting ornament and embracing minimalism, Modernism became the dominant global movement in 20th-century architecture and design.

Modernism is the single most important new style or philosophy of architecture and design of the 20th century, associated with an analytical approach to the function of buildings, a strictly rational use of (often new) materials, an openness to structural innovation and the elimination of ornament. Continue reading

The Architectural Monument at Thiepval

Viator_Shutterstock_99130One of my favorite architectural monuments is British Sir Edwin Lutyens Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme, commemorating the lives lost at the first Battle of the Somme, fought 100-years-on now, in May 1916.

Among his other credentials, Sir Edwin Lutyens (1869-1944) was one of the principal architects of the cemeteries and memorials of the First World War. Continue reading

What is Architectural Design Excellence?


In achieving architectural design excellence there are infinite Everests which beckon us: which Everest should we climb?

“The secret of architectural excellence is to translate the proportions of a dachshund into bricks, mortar and marble.”
Sir Christopher Wren, 1632-1723

There are as many criteria for defining design excellence in architecture as there are architectural designs. And climbing to the summit of design excellence is analogous to that of climbing Mount Everest. Yet in architectural design there are infinite Everests which beckon: which Everest should we climb? Continue reading

A Room With a View

living-room-nature-viewIf you were asked to list the main criteria you would like for your dream home, what would they be?

I’m guessing that high up on your wish list might be for your home to be situated in a location with a breathtaking view – perhaps by the sea, in the mountains, countryside or in a forest. And to be able to enjoy the scenery with a panoramic vista of it through your windows. We are all attracted to rooms that have an amazing view. Continue reading

Pattern Language No.159: Light On Two Sides Of Every Room


“When they have a choice, people will always gravitate to those rooms which have light on two sides, and leave the rooms which are lit only from one side unused and empty”.

Architect/theorist Christopher Alexander conceptualized his Pattern #159: ‘Light On Two Sides Of Every Room’ in his 1977 book, A Pattern Language. Alexander identified that “when they have a choice, people will always gravitate to those rooms which have light on two sides, and leave the rooms which are lit only from one side unused and empty.”

He further maintained that, “this pattern, perhaps more than any other single pattern, determines the success or failure of a room.”

Why is this? Alexander does point out that his own experimentation, from which he drew his conclusions, was rather informal. But the phenomenon is very real. What is it about certain patterns of light that attract people or enhance space and volumes effectively? There are several probable reasons why a room or space with lit on two sides (bilateral daylighting) is more successful than one with light only from one side.

Firstly, bilateral lighting instinctively feels more natural. Balanced light – light coming from more than one direction – is more akin to natural light. In the great outdoors we have both direct sunlight and light from the sky itself – light coming from all different directions. This helps provide depth, giving us clear information about shapes and forms. A strong light source from one direction tends to flatten our views, providing less visual information.


Balanced light – light coming from more than one direction – is more akin to ‘natural’ light. In the great outdoors we have both direct sunlight and light from the sky itself – light coming from all different directions. This helps provide depth, giving us clear information about shapes and forms.

Another reason could be related to brightness and contrast ratios. Take for example the case where one is engaged in conversation in a room lit by a single window, without the benefit of natural side lighting. Because that person’s face is in harsh contrast, it’s more difficult to see facial expressions, giving us considerably less information about their mood or response. This in turn is thought to induce some amount of psychological discomfort, which we in turn project into feelings about the room itself.

The third culprit is glare. The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America [IESNA] identifies glare as two sensations, disability glare and discomfort glare. Disability glare is defined as “the effect of stray light in the eye whereby visibility and visual performance are reduced”. Discomfort glare is defined as “glare that produces discomfort. It does not necessarily interfere with visual performance or visibility”.


“Locate each room so that it has outdoor space outside it on at least two sides, and then place windows in these outdoor walls so that natural light falls into every room from more than one direction.”

Researchers know that the relative location of a light source is a factor contributing to discomfort glare. In the present example, the high contrast between the window aperture and the surrounding surfaces is much higher in a unilaterally lit room than one which is bilaterally lit. The direct impacts of glare are eyestrain and discomfort. Indirect physiological impacts of glare can include red and itchy eyes, headaches, gastrointestinal issues, and fatigue.

Here are excerpts from A Pattern Language, Pattern #159: Light On Two Sides Of Every Room:

When they have a choice, people will always gravitate to those rooms which have light on two sides, and leave the rooms which are lit only from one side unused and empty.


Locate each room so that it has outdoor space outside it on at least two sides, and then place windows in these outdoor walls so that natural light falls into every room from more than one direction.

 The arrangement of daylight in a room, and the presence of windows on two sides, is fundamental. If you build a room with light on one side only, you can be almost certain that you are wasting your money. People will stay out of that room if they can possibly avoid it. Of course, if all the rooms are lit from one side only, people will have to use them. But we can be fairly sure that, they are subtly uncomfortable there, always wishing they weren’t there, wanting to leave – just because we are so sure of what people do when they do have the choice.


Infinity Pools in Home Design: 5 Best Practices

An infinity pool can be used to frame how your home is to be perceived from a pre-selected vantage point.

Our firm was recently commissioned to design a significant remodel for a residential client whose brief included, notably, an infinity pool.

An infinity pool can be a powerful element with which to both showcase a home and beautifully enhance the experience of life within the home. Here are five best practices we recommend when your design includes an infinity pool:

1. Think of the pool as framing a picture.
2. Locate the pool to enhance your key view.
3. Use the pool to conserve energy.
4. Consider it’s form and materials carefully.
5. Make the pool a practical asset.

Think of the Pool as Framing a Picture
Utilize your infinity pool as part of your kit of parts to frame and enhance how your home will be perceived from a distance. For example, the pool will lend more grandeur if placed as part of the entry promenade as opposed to being placed in the back yard. Similarly, it will have an entirely different effect located on the sunny south side of the home as opposed to the shadier north side.

While it may or may not turn out to be practical to locate the pool on the entry side or even the sunny side of the home, the option should at least be identified and considered within the context of other factors informing its ultimate placement on the site.


An infinity pool can be a powerful tool to frame and enhance a primary view.

Locate The Pool To Enhance Your Key View
An infinity pool can be a powerful tool to frame and enhance a primary view.

You must decide first which is the key view from the perspective of looking outward from the site. Some sites are fortunate to have several views from which to choose – if such is the case, it’s all the more important that you evaluate them carefully. List them, with the one most important to you at the top of the list, and secondary views farther down the list. The view at the top of the list is the one to be emphasized as your key view.

Next, choose which room or rooms are to be oriented towards your key view. Is it to be the living room, the dining room, the master bedroom, or all of the above?

Once these decisions are made it becomes a relatively simple matter to decide where within your key view shed the infinity pool is to be placed. Thinking of the pool as a vast horizontal mirror, its surface can powerfully reflect and magnify your key view.

Use The Pool To Conserve Energy
An infinity pool can be a practical asset when it comes to conserving energy. As a reflective surface, if placed advantageously the pool can be used to direct additional solar energy in the form of sunlight, thereby reducing the home’s energy demand in terms of lighting. In hot climes or on hotter days in more temperate climates air cooled by the pool can be used for cross-ventilation as part of a strategy of passive solar cooling for the home.


The materials used to construct the pool and surrounding decks should complement those utilized in the home’s exterior.

Consider the Pool’s Form and Materials Carefully
Your pool’s form and geometry will need to complement the style of the home itself. A rectilinear, orthogonal pool will always complement a home designed in the modern style – it may not necessarily enhance a home designed in, say, French Country style. A curvilinear pool will lend itself to some architectural styles and not to others. So too, the materials selected in the design of the pool will need to match or at least complement those selected for the exterior of the home itself.

Make the Pool a Practical Asset
As a recreational feature, your infinity pool’s function is not simply to enhance your home aesthetically – it’s also your place for swimming! While sorting through all the other factors informing your pool’s design, its crucial not to loose track of what makes a good swimming pool.

Locating the pool for good solar access is essential – nobody wants to swim in a shaded pool! This means that the pool’s relationship to both nearby trees and the house itself need to be carefully considered: neither element should be permitted to cast a shadow on the pool while it’s in use.

For the sake of comfortable access it’s best to locate the pool closer to the home rather than farther away. This is actually an added advantage in terms of most of the best practices described earlier. A pool positioned closer to the home will serve better to capture and reflect distant views than one farther away, and a pool placed nearer the home will be much more effective in bouncing daylight into the interior than one farther away.

Finally in terms of practicality, the pool must lend itself to a strong sense of privacy if its usefulness is to be fully realized. Enclosing it to some degree with building elements, privacy fences or landscaping – placed carefully so as not to compromise the other best practices described earlier – will be critical to the design of the successful infinity pool.


Pattern Language No.117: A Sheltering Roof

House in Zakopane, Poland

House in Zakopane, Poland

Architect/theorist Christopher Alexander conceptualized Pattern #117: Sheltering Roof in his 1977 book, A Pattern Language. Alexander identified that the most fundamental and archetypal element defining a home is it’s roof.

More fundamentally, if the roof cannot be felt visually around the home it’s not nurturing, doesn’t satisfy the psychological need for shelter. The roof shelters us when it embraces, covers and surrounds the process of living. Alexander’s insight is that we must make the entire surface of the roof visible, bring the eaves low at gathering places like entries to lend human scale, and build the top story of the building right within the roof.

Minka style traditional Japanese home

Minka style traditional Japanese home

Pattern No.117 is closely tied to Pattern No.116: ‘Cascade of Roofs’, of which Alexander wrote, “Few buildings will be structurally and socially intact, unless the floors step down toward the ends of wings, and unless the roof, accordingly, forms a cascade.”

A strong sense of shelter is probably the most important aesthetic requirement of a work of architecture. But the roof is a sadly neglected element of the vast majority of works being designed today. When the roof is emphasized in contemporary work it is all too often an over-stated “look how big and expensive I am” exaggeration rather than an authentic expression of the nature of shelter-making and security at the subconscious, visceral level.

House number 8, Blaise  Hamlet, England aka Circular Cottage

House number 8, Blaise Hamlet, England a.k.a. “Circular Cottage”.

Neither a large roof nor prominent overhangs by themselves can be sufficient to the task of providing a sense of shelter. The roof, instead, must be an integral to the living spaces which must exist beneath and within the roof itself.

“Circular Cottage” (right) is a rubble stone lime mortar thatched cottage in Blaise Hamlet near Bristol, England. It was designed by John Nash, master of the picturesque architectural style and designer of, among others, Buckingham Palace in London. The cottage, along with the rest of the hamlet, is owned by the UK’s National Trust. The home also demonstrates other timeless patterns making it emotionally attractive such as No.116 ‘Cascade of Roofs’, No.239 ‘Small Panes’, No.242 ‘Front Door Bench’ and No.231 ‘Dormer Windows’.

Entry of Broadleys House, Windermere. Charles Voysey architect, 1898.

Entrance to Broadleys House, Windermere. Charles Voysey architect, 1898.

In each of these examples, although the location, historical era, scale, and style of the home are vastly different, the concept of a shelter-giving roof is not. In each, the roof is a major visual element of the building when seen from a distance. In each one lives within the roof at the upper floor, it flow gently downward to greet us at the entry, and projects strongly outward to provide the necessary sense of comfort and reassurance, all tests of a successful sheltering roof.