Sustainable architecture is a general term that refers to buildings that are designed to limit humanity’s impact on the environment. An eco-friendly approach to modern day building encompasses every aspect of the planning and construction process. This includes the choice of building materials; the design and implementation of heating, cooling, plumbing, waste, and ventilation systems; and the integration of the built environment into the natural landscape. Continue reading
Exterior cement plaster (stucco) is an exterior finish consisting of portland cement, sand, mixed with water to form a workable plaster. Admixtures may be added to for various purposes including workability. It’s advantages include utility, relatively low first cost, and minimum need for maintenance. Plaster can be a desirable facing material: hard, strong, and most of all, fire-resistant. Continue reading
Architecture can be the Secret Weapon To Combat Infectious Diseases
Throughout history, disease outbreaks have forced new innovations in urban design. Fighting cholera epidemics in the 1800s, for example, necessitated the building of new plumbing and sewer systems and the devising of new zoning laws to prevent overcrowding. As the new coronavirus lays bare the need for broader changes across our economy, such as widespread paid sick leave, it might also influence how cities and buildings are built. Continue reading
Solar Rebates and Tax Credits
California is far and away the most mature residential solar market in the country, which can be both a blessing and a curse in some ways. Overall, it is definitely a net positive for homeowners who live here because they are usually more informed about the intricacies of solar and the state’s solar lobby is powerful enough to fight for important savings tool such as net metering.
But the downside of the mature market is that, unlike other states like Massachusetts and South Carolina, where rebates and energy credits are used to incentivize homeowners to consider solar, California has discontinued almost all of its state-specific solar incentives because the industry is strong enough to sustain itself. Continue reading
The Living Building Challenge (LBC) is a certification program that defines the most advanced measure of sustainability—providing a framework for design, construction and the symbiotic relationship between people and all aspects of the built environment. It is one of most rigorous performance standards in the industry, as it requires net-zero energy, waste and water by every project. Continue reading
Insulation materials run the gamut from bulky fiber materials such as fiberglass, rock and slag wool, cellulose, and natural fibers to rigid foam boards. Bulky materials resist conductive heat flow in a building cavity. Rigid foam boards trap air or another gas to resist conductive heat flow. Other less common materials included cementitious and phenolic foams, vermiculite, and perlite. Continue reading
What are Low-emitting Materials?
Low-emitting materials are products that do not release significant pollutants into the indoor environment. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are chemicals found in many common products and building materials that can escape into the air and cause illness and allergic reactions. These emissions are one of the contributors to the situation known as “sick building syndrome” (SBS) in which building occupants experience health and comfort effects. Continue reading
It’s commonly assumed that buildings are simple, inanimate entities, relatively stable over time. This implies that there is little interaction between a building, what’s in it (occupants and contents), and what’s around it (the larger environment). We commonly see the overwhelming majority of the mass of material in a building as relatively unchanged physical material over time. In fact, the true nature of buildings can be viewed as the result of a complex set of dynamic interactions among their physical, chemical, and biological dimensions. Buildings are best described and understood as complex systems.
Research applying the approaches ecologists use to the understanding of ecosystems can help increase our understanding. “Building ecology “ has been proposed as the application of those approaches to the built environment considering the dynamic system of buildings, their occupants, and the larger environment.
Buildings constantly evolve as a result of the changes in the environment around them as well as the occupants, materials, and activities within them. The various surfaces and the air inside a building are constantly interacting, and this interaction results in changes in each. For example, we may see a window as changing slightly over time as it becomes dirty, then is cleaned, accumulates dirt again, is cleaned again, and so on through its life. In fact, the “dirt” we see may be evolving as a result of the interactions among the moisture, chemicals, and biological materials found there.
Humans are covered with bacteria on all surfaces exposed to the environment around us – our skin, respiratory, and digestive tracks. Roughly 2,000 organisms occupy each square centimeter of these surfaces (roughly 15,000 organisms per square inch). We shed our outer skin layer each two weeks. The skin cells and the oils and other chemical in and on them as well the bacteria hitch-hiking a ride on them end up on the floor, furniture, and even the walls and windows.
When bacteria undergo the transformation from a nomadic life (in air) and become sedentary (settle on surfaces), “they undergo a reversible lifestyle switch.” They “…lose motility and become enclosed in a gooey extracellular matrix,” a kind of film on the surface. There they “sense” their neighbors in the “society” where they find themselves and develop specialized strains to take on different tasks in the community where they find themselves. These evolved bacteria secrete chemicals as part of the “community”.
Of course these chemicals are not occurring independent of the conditions surrounding them, the moisture, chemicals, and particles that are also on the surface or in the air immediately adjacent to it.
This type of diverse coating is present on virtually all indoor surfaces, and the particles, chemicals, and microbes that comprise it are in a sense, each a dynamic ecosystem. While the window glass itself may remain largely unchanged by the processes on its surface, many other surfaces are not as stable. Flooring materials or floor coverings become worn over time, and this wear depends on their material composition, the use that is made of them as well as the maintenance they are given. The wear may result in release of chemicals and particles into the air, and some of these may end up on other surfaces such as the window.
While most of these processes may occur rather slowly, there are some processes that occur much more rapidly, especially those associated with human activities or ventilation with air from outdoors. Chemical interactions produce new chemicals, and moisture on many surfaces support the life, reproduction and evolution of microorganisms. The microorganisms themselves produce chemicals, some of which can alter the pH of the surface and subsequent surface chemistry.
Buildings are designed or intended to respond actively to some of these changes in and around them with heating, cooling, ventilating, air cleaning or illuminating systems. We clean, sanitize, and maintain surfaces to enhance their appearance, performance, or longevity. In other cases, such changes subtly or even dramatically alter buildings in ways that may be important to their own integrity or their impact on building occupants through the evolution of the physical, chemical, and biological processes that define them at any time. We may find it useful to combine the tools of the physical sciences with those of the biological sciences and, especially, some of the approaches used by scientists studying ecosystems, in order to gain an enhanced understanding of the environments in which we spend the majority of our time, our buildings.
Building ecology was first described by research architect Hal Levin in an article in the April 1981 issue of Progressive Architecture magazine. A full discussion of building ecology and extensive resources can be found at the Building Ecology website, buildingecology.com.
by Matthew Pinsker
University of California, Santa Cruz
Daniel Matthew Silvernail Architect Intern
The assemblage of buildings known as Kresge College at UCSC supports social interaction through its Italian hilltop village design, where dormitories overlook the narrow streets and flow of the community. Architects Charles Moore and William Turnbull appear to have considered solar orientation in the college’s design, allowing students to temporally occupy warm and cool zones appropriately with their social interacting needs.
The L-shaped armature comprising Kresge College located on the west side of campus consists of narrow streets lined with dormitories, classrooms, and community murals acting as a nexus guiding students toward areas of assemblage located at each end. According to the Kresge Housing Guide 2011-2012 (as cited in Kaitlin Ryan’s Master’s thesis 2012), “The college prides itself in being ‘a scheme based on a model of a traditional Mediterranean village, with doorways and walkways that open into winding pedestrian streets allowing for easy conversation from balcony to balcony and along the streets of the college itself’” 56.
Modeling the assemblage of buildings after an Italian hilltop village suggests students were intended to live within close proximity to one another to increase a sense of unity. The dormitory positioning allows residents to face and observe the streets, permitting association with and responsibility for the community. As residents proceed through the streets and recline in permitted zones of Kresge College onlookers can extrapolate how the architects understood the use of sunlight or lack thereof to manage social interaction.
Personally conducted observations of social interaction within Kresge College were conducted on April 22nd and 24th of 2014 at intervals of 9 AM, 12 PM, and 3 PM.
The least amount of social interaction appears to occur around 9 AM as students travel by one through dimly lit zones to their morning classes. At this time the sun is positioned at about a 60 degree angle towards the east directly behind a set of redwood trees, hindering sunlight exposure and student desire to interact in designated areas. Around 12 PM the amount of social interaction increases as it is lunchtime and students begin to travel in groups ranging from one to four people. The densest and most reliably sunny area is the Owl’s Nest Café located at the north end of the L-shaped College as the sun is at its culmination. At this time social interaction is transient, as students must navigate towards their afternoon classes. Due to the commonality of morning classes the time of day when student free time begins to peak is 3 PM where students divide into groups of about one to three. Less warm zones exist for students to congregate, but are occupied sensibly to unwind from the day.
Moore and Turnbull appear to have realized that warm zones increase the flow of students and delineate areas to inhabit, conversely potential gathering areas are disregarded at the times of day when students are likely to be busy and cannot afford social interaction.
Kresge College was prudently modeled after an Italian hilltop village, incorporating a design offering a pervasive sense of student involvement within the community wherever one resided. Design architects Charles Moore and William Turnbull seem to have understood the need for a layout that would delineate areas for social interaction, signaling how solar orientation affects public space. Students are busy and cannot afford major distractions; therefore the orientation of the college encourages social interaction at appropriate times of day in accordance with the commonplace student’s assumed productivity levels.
For further reading:
Ryan, Kaitlin E. (2012). Preserving Postmodern Architecture and the Legacy of Charles W. Moore (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Columbia University Academic Commons. (http://hdl.handle.net/10022/AC:P:13356)
by Matthew Pinsker
University of California, Santa Cruz
Daniel Matthew Silvernail Architect Intern
The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development (LEED-ND) system certifies green projects and provides a checklist of environmental standards for land development that evaluates a neighborhood on a point based system.
The protocol was fully launched in 2010 and co-developed by three organizations, the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), the Congress for New Urbanism, and the Natural Resources Defense Council. It is administered by the USGBC.
According to “A Citizen’s Guide to LEED for Neighborhood Development”, LEED-ND defines a neighborhood as “…a place with its own unique character and function, where people can live, work, shop, and interact with their neighbors” 4. In the aforementioned guide LEED-ND certified architects Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk illustrate a good traditional neighborhood as including but not limited to a discernible center, housing within proximity to this center, a variety of dwelling types, a variety of stores and commercial activity, connected streets, and a community decision process 4. When considering the listed criteria planners may want to evaluate their decision to use LEED-ND after reviewing local conditions and potential incentives of implementing this plan.
LEED-ND provides cities the option to use specific criteria ensuring neighborhoods are developed within a green framework. The criteria is represented by a point system primarily evaluated on three dimensions, 27 points can potentially be awarded to smart location and linkage- where to build, 44 to neighborhood pattern and design- what to build, and 29 to green infrastructure and buildings- how to manage environmental impacts. Some areas of the point system are stressed greater than others, for example a maximum of 12 points can be awarded toward walkability and two points are achievable for wastewater management. It is valuable for planners to remain cognizant that neighborhoods vary in resources and needs; accordingly the given community may not view an area deemed of high value similarly.
Potential incentives for an abiding community as stated in “A Citizen’s Guide to LEED for Neighborhood Development” include but are not limited to fee reductions, tax credits, and grants 20-21. Offering incentives to local governments, developers, or other decision-makers to adopt the LEED-ND protocol would theoretically ensure neighborhoods could afford to incorporate green development if they so choose. To develop a neighborhood under LEED-ND criteria seems to indicate an aim to establish a widely acknowledged base level of performance that controls ecological impact, potentially offering any interested party the opportunity of attainment.
LEED-ND is a voluntary program that offers neighborhoods base level criteria for controlling environmental decay while incorporating green building practices. Since neighborhoods are not homogenous it may be worthwhile for planners to scrutinize their jurisdiction and work with the community to determine a beneficial plan of action.
A gamut of decision-makers can encourage criteria under LEED-ND by offering aid towards development, allowing the decision for green development to be made by any community irrespective of available resources. LEED-ND provides neighborhoods pursuing sustainable development a revered systematic guide that if opted can lead to eco-friendly growth and accreditation, potentially extending forward thinking into a community’s posterity.
Good Traditional Neighborhood Criteria:
• A discernible center.
• Housing within a five minute walk of the center.
• A variety of dwelling types.
• A variety of stores and commercial activity.
• Flexible backyard “ancillary” buildings for working or living.
• A school within walking distance.
• Playgrounds near all dwellings.
• Connected streets.
• Narrow, shaded streets conducive to pedestrians and cyclists.
• Buildings close to the street at a pedestrian scale.
• Parking or garages placed behind buildings and away from street frontages.
• Prominent civic and public buildings.
• A community decision process for maintenance, security, and neighborhood development.
Potential Benefits of Incorporating LEED-ND:
• Fee reductions.
• Tax credits.
• Allowing additional density or building height.
• Sharing the cost of new infrastructure required by projects.
• Marketing enhancement.
To learn more about the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development (LEED-ND) protocol, a helpful resource is the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) Website.
For further reading:
“A Citizen’s Guide to LEED for Neighborhood Development: How to Tell if Development is Smart and Green”.
The U.S. Green Building Council, the Congress for New Urbanism, and the Natural Resources Defense Council. “A Citizen’s Guide to LEED for Neighborhood Development: How to Tell if Development is Smart and Green.” n.p. n.d.: 1-39. Web. 2 April 2014.