Humans have been building shelters and structures for millennia, making construction one of the oldest professions. The industry has continuously evolved in the ways we design, plan, and build structures. For decades, technology has been used in the construction industry to increase productivity and efficiency in construction projects and make structures safer. More recently, construction firms have increasingly begun using AI (artificial intelligence) in innovative ways to make construction even more efficient and productive. From optimizing work schedules, to improving workplace safety, to keeping a secure watch on construction facilities, AI in the construction industry is already proving its value and making inroads into this traditionally conservative industry. Continue reading
Tag Archives: building technology
Choosing the Best Windows for Your Home
Windows are an important investment in your home’s curb appeal and your quality of life. They’re also pricey, often costing hundreds or even thousands of dollars to install or replace. Gone are the days when homeowners’ interest in windows was limited to size and shape: today’s energy-conscious consumers want to minimize costs of heating/ cooling their homes. Whether you’re building a new home or planning to replace existing, the key is knowing which choices will give you the biggest bang for your buck without impacting your bottom line. This guide is intended to help you make informed choices as to best window options for your home. Continue reading
Transparent Aluminum: A Cutting Edge Material
One of the more recent technologies to emerge in the ever-changing world of advanced building materials is transparent aluminum. It has long been the ambition of architects and engineers to find a material that combines the strength and hardness of metal with the crystal-clear purity of glass. Such a “clear metal” could be used, for example, to construct towering glass-walled skyscrapers whose outer skins are structurally self-supporting, with an absolute minimum of secondary supporting members. Transparent aluminum is a cutting edge-material already being used in specialty architectural applications including blast-resistant and infrared-optical windows.
What is Transparent Aluminum?
Known commercially as ALON, transparent aluminum is made of aluminum oxynitride, a combination of aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen. Before it can end up as a hard transparent armor plate, it begins as a powder. This powder is then molded, subjected to high heat and baked, just as any other ceramic is baked. Once baked, the powder liquefies and then quickly cools into a solid, which leaves the molecules loosely arranged as if still in liquid form. The resulting rigid crystalline structure of the molecules provides a level of strength and scratch resistance that’s comparable to rugged sapphire. Additional polishing strengthens the aluminum alloy and also makes it extremely clear.
Transparent aluminum is a transparent polycrystalline ceramic with a cubic spinel crystal structure. ALON is produced by combining aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen. Its chemical formula is Al2O27N5.
• Hardest polycrystalline transparent ceramic commercially available.
• 80% transparent in the near-ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions.
• Best material available material in terms of optical quality.
• It is three times harder than steel and four times as hard as conventional silica glass of the same thickness.
• Corrosion and oxidation resistant.
• High flexural strength.
• Good compressive strength.
ALON production begins by introducing a mixture having aluminum oxide and carbon into a chamber, agitating the mixture within the chamber, and heating the mixture to make aluminum oxynitride. The next step involves pressurizing the aluminum oxynitride powder to 15,000 pounds per inch in rubber molds submerged in hydraulic fluid. The obtained material, which is molded and opaque, is heated to 2000-deg C and kept at this temperature for two days. Once cooled, ALON emerges transparent and is then ground and polished for extra clarity and strength.
Applications of Transparent Aluminum
Although the material has exceptional mechanical and optical properties, at present it is prohibitively expensive to produce. For this reason its current application in construction is relatively limited, constrained to specialty applications including bullet-proof glass, blast-resistant windows, and infrared-optical windows.
It is thought that as the material becomes more mainstream, production costs will become less prohibitive. In turn this could lead to its application in more commonplace uses. Specifically, due to its exceptional strength and impact-resistance characteristics, in the near term it’s well positioned to emerge as a superior alternative to conventional safety glass (i.e. tempered or laminated glass) in building applications. In the longer term, it could be a material poised to allow towering buildings whose skins are made of only transparent metal.
For Further Reading:
• Science Daily has published an article, “Transparent Aluminum Is New State Of Matter”, found at: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/07/090727130814.htm
• An article, “What is Transparent Aluminum?” can be found at TheConstructor.org. The link is: https://theconstructor.org/building/building-material/transparent-aluminium/561733/
• Surmet, a producer of transparent aluminum, has published several articles about ALON at: http://www.surmet.com/technology/alon-optical-ceramics/
Ascent Tower the World’s Tallest Timber Building
CTBUH certifies Ascent as World’s Tallest Mass Timber Building
The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) has officially declared the recently-opened Ascent tower by Korb + Associates Architects the world’s tallest timber-concrete hybrid building. The 25-story, 86.6-meter (284-foot) structure in Milwaukee takes the distinguished title in two of the mass timber categories: It is both the tallest timber building overall and the tallest concrete-timber hybrid building.
The previous world’s tallest timber building was Mjøstårnet in Brumunddal, Norway, certified by CTBUH in 2019, which stands at roughly 280 feet. Previously holding the record of tallest concrete-timber hybrid building was the approximately 276-foot HoHo building in Vienna, Austria.
The building features 259 luxury apartments, retail space, an elevated pool with operable window walls, and a sky-deck.
In May of 2019, Ascent was named a recipient of a U.S. Department of Agriculture grant awarded through the Forest Service’s Wood Innovations Grant program. The federal grant assisted with the testing needed to prove mass timber’s ability to perform as well as traditional building materials like concrete and steel to meet U.S. building codes.
Plans for the project were unveiled in 2018.While the initial design included 21 floors,updates and subsequent approvals brought the total to 25 floors in March of 2020.
The project had been presented at the 2018 international CTBUH conference in Dubai, the 2019 international CTBUH conference in Chicago, and the 2019 International Mass Timber conference in Portland.
The Ascent development was constructed using a digital twin model, allowing for materials, such as beams, columns, and panels, to arrive on site ready to use with holes pre-drilled to within 1/16-inch accuracy. According to CTBUH, it is estimated that using mass timber for the project decreased construction time by approximately 25 percent compared to a conventional, similarly-sized concrete building.
Skyscrapers Made of Wood
Construction is a major carbon dioxide emitter, with eight percent of global emissions traceable to the cement industry and another eight percent coming from steel production. Engineers and entrepreneurs are testing out new ways of building things—in terms of both methodology and materials—to make construction more eco-friendly, not to mention cut its costs and provide better spaces for people to work and live in. 3D printed houses are one trend that’s been on the rise for a couple years. Now it seems an equally innovative trend is developing: high-rise buildings made of wood. Continue reading
Building Location, Fire-Rated Construction, and You
Everyone wants to make the most out of their property. Maximizing your open space is the most common approach, and locating your buildings (including accessory structures) as close as possible to your property line is one way to increase the open space between – and thus maximize the usable square footage of – those buildings. However this can come at one fairly big price: fire resistant requirements. This post will explain what has to be fireproofed, what that means, and what that means to you. Continue reading
Slab-on-Grade vs. Crawl Space: Which Foundation System is Best?
Is it better to have a crawlspace or slab-on-grade foundation system? This is a common question among those planning to build or add onto their house. A crawlspace continues to be the more common type of foundation, but slab foundations are becoming increasingly popular. While there are advantages and disadvantages to each type of foundation, the choice ultimately comes down to a combination of personal preference, costs/benefits analysis, short-term vs. long-term advantages, and site-specific conditions accruing to where the new addition or custom home is being built. Continue reading this crawlspace vs. slab comparison to learn which one will best suit your needs. Continue reading
All You Need to Know About Rainscreens
To lower the risk of wall rot, it’s increasingly seen as sensible to provide a ventilated air gap between the siding material (also known as cladding) and the structural sheathing. As rainscreens become more common, mainstream builders are more often being compelled to ask, “What is a rainscreen? How do I know if I need one?”. This article discusses the most common questions about rainscreen gaps between the siding and sheathing. Continue reading
Wood Flooring 101: Types of Wood Flooring
Wood flooring is a long-lasting, aesthetically pleasing, and affordable interior floor covering. According to the National Wood Flooring Association (NWFA) in a national survey of real estate agents, 90% said that houses with wood flooring sell faster and for higher prices than houses without wood floors. That being the case, who wouldn’t want a wood floor? Prior to racing out and purchasing wood flooring, we need to understand what is available and keep in mind that all wood floors are not created equal. Continue reading
Transparent Wood Could Be the Window of the Future
Transparent wood composites are novel wood materials which have up to 90% transparency. Some have better mechanical properties than wood itself. They were made for the first time in 1992. These materials are significantly more biodegradable than glass and plastics. Transparent wood is also shatterproof. Continue reading